The incidence rate of children in western countries suffering from dyslexia is about 5% to 10%. On the other hand, in Hong Kong, the Education and Manpower Bureau of the HKSAR Government identifies less than 1% of children as dyslexic. We speculate that this is probably due to a lack of a comprehensive and reliable assessment tool for identifying children with this problem. In a Chinese society, pupils who do not do well in reading and writing are often mistaken as being lazy or having low (intellectual) ability. However, they may actually be crippled by cognitive problem(s) that lead to poor academic performance. If those pupils cannot receive appropriate intervention, they may develop serious problems in learning, emotions and behaviour.